Duties: Design automotive plant layout, including the arrangement of assembly line stations, material-moving equipment, work standards, and other production matters
Alternate Title(s): Quality Engineer
Salary Range: $40,760 to $91,090
Employment Prospects: Good
Advancement Prospects: Good
Best Geographical Location(s): Most jobs in the automotive field are located in Michigan, although automotive plants in other parts of the country also hire Industrial Engineers
Education or Training - A bachelor’s degree is required for most entry-level jobs
Experience - A solid background in math and science is helpful
Special Skills and Personality Traits - Creative, inquisitive, analytical, good computer skills, and detail-oriented
Licensure/Certification - All 50 states require licensure for engineers who offer their services directly to the public
Industrial Engineer Technician >> Industrial Engineer >> Engineering Manager
Industrial engineers use their knowledge of various disciplines - including systems engineering, management science, operations research, and fields such as ergonomics - to determine the most efficient and cost-effective methods for industrial production. They are responsible for designing systems that integrate materials, equipment, information, and people in the overall production process. Approximately 177,000 industrial engineers are employed in the United States.
In today’s industries, manufacturers increasingly depend on industrial engineers to determine the most efficient production techniques and processes. The roots of industrial engineering, however, can be traced to ancient Greece, where records indicate that manufacturing labor was divided among people having specialized skills.
The most significant milestones in industrial engineering, before the field even had an official name, occurred in the 18th century, when a number of inventions were introduced in the textile industry. The first was the flying shuttle that opened the door to the highly automatic weaving we now take for granted. This shuttle allowed one person, rather than two, to weave fabrics wider than ever before. Other innovative devices, such as the power loom and the spinning jenny that increased weaving speed and improved quality, soon followed. By the late 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was in full swing. Innovations in manufacturing were made, standardization of interchangeable parts was implemented, and specialization of labor was increasingly put into practice.
Industrial engineering as a science is said to have originated with the work of Frederick Taylor. In 1881, he began to study the way production workers used their time. At the Midvale Steel Company where he was employed, he introduced the concept of time study, whereby workers were timed with a stopwatch and their production was evaluated. He used the studies to design methods and equipment that allowed tasks to be done more efficiently.
In the early 1900s, the field was known as scientific management. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were influential with their motion studies of workers performing various tasks. Then, around 1913, automaker Henry Ford implemented a conveyor belt assembly line in his factory, which led to increasingly integrated production lines in more and more companies. Industrial engineers nowadays are called upon to solve ever more complex operating problems and to design systems involving large numbers of workers, complicated equipment, and vast amounts of information. They meet this challenge by utilizing advanced computers and software to design complex mathematical models and other simulations.
Industrial Engineers (IEs) figure out how to do things better by designing engineering systems that improve quality and productivity. IEs make significant contributions to their employers by saving money while making the workplace better for fellow workers. They play an integral role in all stages of auto manufacturing, designing automotive plant layout, including the arrangement of assembly line stations, material-moving equipment, work standards, and other production matters.
Industrial Engineers discover a new way to assemble a product that will prevent worker injury, convert major production lines, represent the company in the design and construction of a new manufacturing plant, perform motion and time studies, implement lean manufacturing concepts, develop complete material handling systems for a new automobile, develop the conceptual layout of an automotive repair maintenance facility, and represent manufacturing and purchasing issues on a design team.
Industrial Engineers determine the most effective ways for an organization to use workers, machines, materials, information, and energy to make a product or to provide a service. They are the bridge between management goals and worksite performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes.
To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, Industrial Engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, use mathematical methods such as operations research to meet those requirements, and design manufacturing and information systems. They develop management control systems to help in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services.
Industrial Engineers determine which plant location has the best combination of available raw materials, transportation facilities, and costs. They use computers for simulations and to control various activities and devices, such as assembly lines and robots. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs.
Most Industrial Engineers work in office buildings, industrial plants, and production sites, where they monitor or direct operations or solve on-site problems. Many work a standard 40-hour week, although sometimes deadlines or design problems bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, Industrial Engineers may work longer hours and experience considerable stress.
Industrial engineers are involved with the development and implementation of the systems and procedures that are utilized by many industries and businesses. In general, they figure out the most effective ways to use the three basic elements of any company: people, facilities, and equipment.
Although industrial engineers work in a variety of businesses, the main focus of the discipline is in manufacturing, also called industrial production. Primarily, industrial engineers are concerned with process technology, which includes the design and layout of machinery and the organization of workers who implement the required tasks.
Industrial engineers have many responsibilities. With regard to facilities and equipment, engineers are involved in selecting machinery and other equipment and then in setting them up in the most efficient production layout. They also develop methods to accomplish production tasks, such as the organization of an assembly line. In addition, they devise systems for quality control, distribution, and inventory.
Industrial engineers are responsible for some organizational issues. For instance, they might study an organization chart and other information about a project and then determine the functions and responsibilities of workers. They devise and implement job evaluation procedures as well as articulate labor-utilization standards for workers. Engineers often meet with managers to discuss cost analysis, financial planning, job evaluation, and salary administration. Not only do they recommend methods for improving employee efficiency but they may also devise wage and incentive programs.
Industrial engineers evaluate ergonomic issues, the relationship between human capabilities and the physical environment in which they work. For example, they might evaluate whether machines are causing physical harm or discomfort to workers or whether the machines could be designed differently to enable workers to be more productive.
Education and Training
A bachelor’s degree in engineering is required for entry-level industrial engineering jobs. Most industrial engineering programs involve a concentration of study in industrial engineering, along with courses in both mathematics and science. Graduate training is not required for entry-level industrial engineering jobs in the automotive industry.
About 330 colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degree programs in engineering that are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). ABET accreditation is based on an examination of an engineering program’s student achievement, program improvement, faculty, curricular content, facilities, and institutional commitment. Some programs emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, whereas others are more theoretical and are designed to prepare students for graduate work. Therefore, students interested in working in the automotive field should investigate curricula and check accreditations carefully before selecting a college.
Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include a solid background in mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus) and sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), and courses in English, social studies, humanities, and computers.
Bachelor’s degree programs in industrial engineering typically are designed to last four years, but many students find that it takes between four and five years to complete their studies. In a typical four-year college curriculum, the first two years are spent studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory engineering, humanities, and social sciences. Students interested in industrial engineering spend the last two years taking engineering courses with a concentration in industrial engineering.
Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. Other engineering schools and two-year colleges have agreements in which the two-year college provides the initial engineering education, and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last two years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrangements in which a student spends three years in a liberal arts college studying pre-engineering subjects and two years in an engineering school studying core subjects, receiving a bachelor’s degree from each school.
Some colleges and universities offer five-year master’s degree programs; others offer five- or even six-year cooperative plans that combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and finance part of their education.
Two industrial engineers use a computer to test new car designs.
To prepare for a college engineering program, concentrate on mathematics (algebra, trigonometry, geometry, calculus), physical sciences (physics, chemistry), social sciences (economics, sociology), and English. Engineers often have to convey ideas graphically and may need to visualize processes in three-dimension, so courses in graphics, drafting, or design are also helpful. In addition, round out your education with computer science, history, and foreign language classes. If honor level courses are available to you, be sure to take them.
A bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution is usually the minimum requirement for all professional positions. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) accredits schools offering engineering programs, including industrial engineering. A listing of accredited colleges and universities is available on the ABET’s Web site (http://www.abet.org), and a visit here should be one of your first stops when you are deciding on a school to attend. Colleges and universities offer either four- or five-year engineering programs. Because of the intensity of the curricula, many students take heavy course loads and attend summer sessions in order to finish in four years.
During your junior and senior years of college, you should consider your specific career goals, such as in which industry to work. Third- and fourth-year courses focus on such subjects as facility planning and design, work measurement standards, process design, engineering economics, manufacturing and automation, and incentive plans.
Many industrial engineers go on to earn a graduate degree. These programs tend to involve more research and independent study. Graduate degrees are usually required for teaching positions.
Certification or Licensing
Licensure as a professional engineer is recommended since an increasing number of employers require it. Even those employers who do not require licensing will view it favorably when considering new hires or when reviewing workers for promotion. Licensing requirements vary from state to state. In general, however, they involve having graduated from an accredited school, having four years of work experience, and having passed the eight-hour Fundamentals of Engineering exam and the eight-hour Principles and Practice of Engineering exam. Depending on your state, you can take the Fundamentals exam shortly before your graduation from college or after you have received your bachelor’s degree. At that point you will be an engineer-in-training (EIT). Once you have fulfilled all the licensure requirements, you receive the designation professional engineer (PE).
Industrial engineers enjoy problem solving and analyzing things as well as being a team member. The ability to communicate is vital since engineers interact with all levels of management and workers. Being organized and detail-minded is important because industrial engineers often handle large projects and must bring them in on time and on budget. Since process design is the cornerstone of the field, an engineer should be creative and inventive.
All 50 states and the District of Columbia require licensure for engineers. Licensed engineers are called Professional Engineers (PE); this generally requires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, four years of relevant work experience, and successful completion of a state examination.
Recent graduates can start the licensing process by taking the examination in two stages. The initial Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination can be taken upon graduation; engineers who pass this examination are called Engineers in Training (EIT) or Engineer Interns (EI). The EIT certification is usually valid for 10 years.
After acquiring suitable work experience, EITs can take the second examination, the Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam. Several states have imposed mandatory continuing education requirements for relicensure, but most states recognize licensure from other states.
Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits
Industrial Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail-oriented, with good computer skills. They need good time-management skills, mechanical aptitude, common sense, a strong desire for organization, resourcefulness, negotiation and leadership skills, and a passion for improvement.
Successful Industrial Engineers must be able to communicate effectively in order to sell their ideas. They must be able to manage multiple tasks.
Try joining a science or engineering club, such as the Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS). JETS offers academic competitions in subjects such as computer fundamentals, mathematics, physics, and English. It also conducts design contests in which students learn and apply science and engineering principles. JETS also offers the Pre-Engineering Times, a publication that will be useful if you are interested in engineering. It contains information on engineering specialties, competitions, schools, scholarships, and other resources. You also might read some engineering books for background on the field or magazines such as Industrial Engineer, a magazine published by the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE). Selected articles from Industrial Engineer can be viewed on the IIE’s Web site, http://www.iienet.org.
Approximately 177,000 industrial engineers are employed in the United States. Although a majority of industrial engineers are employed in the manufacturing industry, related jobs are found in almost all businesses, including aviation, aerospace, transportation, communications, electric, gas and sanitary services, government, finance, insurance, real estate, wholesale and retail trade, construction, mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Also, many work as independent consultants.
The main qualification for an entry-level job is a bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering. Accredited college programs generally have job openings listed in their career services offices. Entry-level industrial engineers find jobs in various departments, such as computer operations, warehousing, and quality control. As engineers gain on-the-job experience and familiarity with departments, they may decide on a specialty. Some may want to continue to work as process designers or methods engineers, while others may move on to administrative positions.
Some further examples of specialties include work measurement standards, shipping and receiving, cost control, engineering economics, materials handling, management information systems, mathematical models, and operations. Many who choose industrial engineering as a career find its appeal in the diversity of sectors that are available to explore.
After having worked at least three years in the same job, an industrial engineer may have the basic credentials needed for advancement to a higher position. In general, positions in operations and administration are considered high-level jobs, although this varies from company to company. Engineers who work in these areas tend to earn larger salaries than those who work in warehousing or cost control, for example. If one is interested in moving to a different company, it is considered easier to do so within the same industry.
Industrial engineering jobs are often considered stepping-stones to management positions, even in other fields. Engineers with many years’ experience frequently are promoted to higher level jobs with greater responsibilities. Because of the field’s broad exposure, industrial engineering employees are generally considered better prepared for executive roles than are other types of engineers.
Average annual salaries for Industrial Engineers range between $62,890 and $64,290. The lowest 10 percent earn less than $40,760, and the highest 10 percent earn more than $91,090. Bachelor’s degree candidates in industrial engineering receive starting offers averaging about $48,320 a year; master’s degree candidates average $56,265 a year; and Ph.D. candidates are initially offered $59,800. Top paying locations include Alaska (average $79,630), California ($72,720), and Washington, D.C. ($72,030).
According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the mean annual wage for industrial engineers in 2005 was $66,670. The lowest paid 10 percent of all industrial engineers earned less than $43,620 annually. However, as with most occupations, salaries rise as more experience is gained. Very experienced engineers can earn more than $97,000. According to a survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, the average starting salary for industrial engineers with a bachelor’s degree was $49,567 in 2005, while a master’s degree, $56,561 a year; and with a Ph.D., $85,000.
Industrial engineers usually work in offices at desks and computers, designing and evaluating plans, statistics, and other documents. Overall, industrial engineering is ranked above other engineering disciplines for factors such as employment outlook, salary, and physical environment. However, industrial engineering jobs are considered stressful because they often entail tight deadlines and demanding quotas, and jobs are moderately competitive. Engineers work an average of 46 hours per week.
Industrial engineers generally collaborate with other employees, conferring on designs and procedures, as well as with business managers and consultants. Although they spend most of their time in their offices, they frequently must evaluate conditions at factories and plants, where noise levels are often high.
Overall employment of Industrial Engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average through 2012. Because the main function of Industrial Engineers is to make a higher-quality product as efficiently and as safely as possible, their services should be in demand in the automotive manufacturing sector as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity.
The number of bachelor’s degrees awarded in engineering began declining in 1987 and has continued to stay at about the same level through much of the 1990s, and the total number of graduates from industrial engineering programs is not expected to increase significantly. Therefore, competition for jobs should not increase.
Beginning industrial engineering graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced engineers. As new Industrial Engineers become more experienced, they are assigned more difficult projects with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Many Industrial Engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related.
The U.S. Department of Labor anticipates that employment for industrial engineers will grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2014. The demand for industrial engineers will continue as manufacturing and other companies strive to make their production processes more effective and competitive. Engineers who transfer or retire will create the highest percentage of openings in this field.
Unions and Associations
Industrial Engineers may join a variety of professional organizations such as the Institute of Industrial Engineers; a few belong to a union such as the United Auto Workers.
Tips for Entry
1. Visit Web sites to check job postings for Industrial Engineers, such as the Web site of the Institute of Industrial Engineers (iienet.org).
2. Create a résumé and post it at the Web site of the Institute of Industrial Engineers.
3. Mail your résumé to top automotive companies where you would like to work.
4. Attend professional conferences (such as the Institute of Industrial Engineers annual convention) and check out job boards there.
For More Information
For a list of ABET-accredited engineering schools, contact
Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)
111 Market Place, Suite 1050
Baltimore, MD 21202-7116
For comprehensive information about careers in industrial engineering, contact
Institute of Industrial Engineers
3577 Parkway Lane, Suite 200
Norcross, GA 30092-2833
Visit the JETS Web site for membership information and to read the online brochure Industrial Engineering.
Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS)
1420 King Street, Suite 405
Alexandria, VA 22314-2750